He was the leader of the Nazi missile program that brought the United States to the moon

From the Barons Castle to the Super Secret Nazi Missile Station

In the early hours of June 20, 1944, a V-2 rocket with a registration number MW18014 soared into the air with an inaudible noise from one of the launch pads at Beamentay, a secret test site on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Powered by a 12.5-meter-high liquid propeller, the silver-winged “curl” quickly disappeared from the eyes of technicians watching the test launch, and then only instruments could be used to follow the trajectory of the ballistic device, which further increased the speed to five times the speed of sound.

The German A-4 or V-2 (Verkheldungschwf-2: Retaliatory Weapon) ballistic missile was the first man-made device to cross the boundaries of space.Source: Wikimedia Commons

Beyond the magical boundaries of V-2 space, breaking all previous test records,

The Carmen line at an altitude of 100 kilometers, and landed in the universe. (The Gorman line is the boundary line calculated by the world-famous Hungarian scientist Tedor Gorman, where there is not enough buoyancy to fly, so for the plane to orbit the Earth, it must reach its first cosmic speed.)

The world-famous Hungarian physicist Todor Korman is known as the father of supersonic aircraft and one of the pioneers of rocket technology and hypersonic space travel.Source: Wikimedia Commons / Pondicherry

It was a rocket, eventually reaching an altitude of 176 kilometers

It was the first man-made device to reach space in history.

This amazing technological achievement was largely due to Werner von Braun, the 32-year-old sole leader of the missile test division under SS supervision. Von Braun was a descendant of an old starving German aristocratic family who was born on March 23, 1912, the second child of Baron Magnus von Braun, then in Verschits, East Germany (now Virgisk, Poland).

Werner von Braun, the most influential rocket engineer of the 20th centurySource: Wikimedia Commons / AFP

As a result of Professor Hermann Oberth’s 1925 book Die Rocket Ju den Planettenrumen (Rocket in Space), he became interested in the possibility of space travel at the age of 13. As a student at the Technical University of Berlin, he joined the German Space Society, where he became an assistant to his exemplary Professor Oberth. Hermann Oberth’s pioneering work almost half a century later laid the foundation for the construction of space-operated fluid-powered missiles.

Professor Herman Oberth, “father” of liquid rocket propulsionForus: Pioneers of aircraft

Blessed with outstanding skills, Van Brown received his doctorate in physics in 1934 from Humboldt University in Berlin.

By the time he received his doctorate, Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party was already in power in Germany.

The Nazis initially realized the military importance of rocket propulsion, so the public banned missile tests, which created a unique monopoly for the military.

Von Braun (second on the right in the picture) at the German Rocket Scientists Institute in 1930Source: NASA / Marshall Space Flight Center

A secret base for military rocket tests was established in 1937 at Beamentay on the shores of the Baltic Sea; And the talented young architect, Wernhar von Braun, was appointed head of the experimental laboratory.

The deadly weapon fell silently and invisibly on its target

Werner von Braun, who always dreamed of space travel and the missiles that make it possible, after hard work and many failed attempts, by 1942 developed the first liquid-powered ballistic missile in history, which was already suited to space. To achieve. Adolf Hitler was certainly not interested in lunar travel, but was likely to destroy enemies, so it was assumed that Van Fran’s invention should be used for war purposes.

Adolf Hitler found a way to retaliate with a V-2 ballistic missileSource: Pondeserkiev / Hoffman, Heinrich

Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s influential propaganda minister, called the A-4 ballistic missile a “weapon of retaliation” (Verkheldungschoff).

Henceforth it refers to V-2

Next to the first robotic aircraft in world history, the V-1 wing bomb and other Nazi “miracle weapon”. The V-2 ballistic missile launched its first successful test launch site in October 1942, but became a weapon imaginable by the Nazi leadership in order to create large masses, many problems still to be solved.

Joseph Goebbels named the missile VerkheldungschwafSource: AFP

Due to the importance of the project, the test site SS was built on the initiative of Imperial President Heinrich Himmler’s “Reichsfr”. Placed under the rule.

The missiles were built by Himmler with prisoners from the Mittalbau-Dora concentration camp, which was established in 1943.

In the concentration camps, slave laborers made Hitler’s miracle weapon inhumanely, and many prisoners were killed by the inhumane behavior and cruelty of the SS guards.

The missile test site was privately owned by Heinrich Himmler’s S.S.Source: Bundesarchiv / O.Ang.

S.S. in committing crimes against forced labor. Major Wenger von Fran’s view of responsibility remained controversial even after the war;

Von Braun continues to deny knowing of these atrocities,

However, many of the survivors denied this. In fact, Werner von Brown has never been prosecuted as a war criminal. The V-2 can only be used from September 1944, primarily against UK targets.

At the German authorities’ von Braun’s company at the Beamentay test siteSource: Wikimedia Commons / Pondicherry

The destructive warship fitted to the nose of the rocket contained 900 kg of TNT,

And the V-2 hit its target at five times the speed of sound,

It, unlike the V-1 wing bomb, does not approach or hear its approach. By March 1945, a total of about 4,000 V-2s had been eliminated, but contrary to Hitler’s expectations, the V-2 was used too late to have any meaningful effect on the end of the war.

A tragic landscape in the wake of the V-2 crash in LondonSource: Imperial War Museum

The psychological impact, however, was not underestimated in any way because the Allies were deeply shocked by the fact that the Germans were capable of producing such a destructive weapon.

The Cold War space race put the Nazi past in brackets

After the surrender of Nazi Germany on May 8, 1945, a sharp race developed between the Americans and the Soviets to obtain the results of secret German military research. Part of this was a “brain hunt” operation to “gather” German scientists and engineers working on military advances.

An American hand V-2 ballistic missileForce: US Army Photographic Archive

Knowing the inevitable defeat from the summer of 1944, Werner von Braun and his fellow scientists did not want to fall into the hands of the Soviets in any way, so he voluntarily surrendered to the Americans. The Americans won the race for the V-2 because they had in their hands the most valuable “trophy” of the missile development program, the chief designer Werner von Brown and his most direct staff.

Van Braun (his hand-built picture) and his fellow scientists captured in the USForce: US Army Photographic Archive

(The Soviets were able to retrieve some of the remaining V-2s.) American captive Van Braun and his allies were taken to the United States,

U.S. The military first used their expertise to launch a military missile program.

In 1952, Eisenhower was in the White House after President Harry Truman. Dwight D. Eisenhower, European Commander of the Anglo-Saxon Allied Forces during World War II. Eisenhower has long been reluctant to grant US citizenship to the president, but the program should involve Nazi-era German scientists in US space.

President Eisenhower has long been reluctant to involve German scientists in the space program with the Nazi past.Source: Library of Congress

On October 4, 1957, the successful launch of the first satellite, Sputnik-1, came as a shock to the American political leadership as it became clear that the Soviets were leading the way in space racing. As a result, Eisenhower abandoned his previous reluctance and decided to involve Werner von Brand and his fellow scientists in the US space program.

Soviet Sputnik-1 was the first spacecraft to orbit the Earth at its first cosmic speedSource: Cosmos Magazine

In 1958, the U.S. The president signed an order to establish NASA, the space agency, which transferred the missile development center from the military to the newly created space agency. Former S.S. Major Werner von Brown has been appointed head of NASA’s newly established Marshall Space Flight Center. Van Fran and his colleagues did a lot to correct the evils against the Soviets.

Van Braun on the Saturn Moon rocketSource: NASA / JBL

Fran’s development team created the Jupiter-C launcher,

It launched the first American satellite, Explorer-1, into orbit on January 31, 1958.

But Van Braun and colleagues are also proud to have built the Redstone Mercury launch vehicle, which took the first American astronaut, Alan Shebert, into suburban space travel three weeks after Yuri Gagarin’s successful mission on May 5, 1961.

Head to the moon!

In his famous speech after the Alan Shepard spacecraft, President John F. Kennedy announced that the United States would send man to the moon by the end of the decade, when the world-famous architect Werner von Fran had immortal qualifications.

In the company of President von Brown KennedySource: Wikimedia Commons

Within a few years, Van Braun and colleagues had developed a large and powerful Saturn missile vehicle family that helped them achieve complete success during the Apollo program, which began in 1967. On July 16, 1969, astronauts Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins were first taken to the moon from Launch Station 39-A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. People.

Apollo 11 crew (left to right), Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin AldrinSource: NASA

The Apollo-11 landing unit, Eagle-Ferry, landed on the plain of the moon, known as the Pacific Ocean, on July 20, 1969.

Moon travel fulfills mankind’s great dream. The missile was the Saturn-V, which brought American astronauts to the surface of our celestial body. The chief architect, Wenger von Braun, received the same celebration as the astronauts orbiting the moon.

Celebrated by the Van Brand crowd during the successful launch of Apollo-11Source: AFP

As a culmination of his success, Werner von Braun was appointed Deputy Director of NASA in February 1970, and later worked at NASA’s Space Center in Washington, DC.

To guide the strategic planning of the space agency.

He resigned permanently in 1972 and became chairman of Fairchild Industries of Germontown, a Maryland-based aircraft manufacturer.

Van Braun, with Storn-V in the background. With the moon rocketSource: NASA / JBL

Werner von Braun, a former Hitler missile engineer who brought the United States to the moon, died on June 16, 1977 in Alexandria, Virginia.

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